Fatwas of Bin Baaz from Saudi Arabia

Fatwa given by the great learned Abdul Aziz son of Abdullah son of Baaz (died in 1420 AH)

Question No. 71346:

What is the thought and belief of Bahaiyat? What is the difference between them and other Muslims?

Answer:
Al Bahaiyat and Babiyat are the sects which emerged from the Shaikhiya sect in the year 1260AH/1844 in order to corrupt the belief of Islam and to divide the Muslim community into different parts and to deviate them.

Mirza Ali Mohammed Shirazi laid the foundation of Babiyat. He studied the concepts of Shaykhism and and Sufism at a very young age. In the year 1844/1260 AH, he announced that he was the gate (Bab) to reach the “the reality of Allah”. The Bab was instigated by one of the spies of the Jews.

Later on he announced that he was a messenger like Musa, Isa and Mohammed (pbuh). He even claimed that he was superior to them all and in the year 1266 AH, he claimed that Allah has incarnated in him.

Qurratul Ayn: She was a woman who was very good in ‘Fasahat ‘ and ‘Balagat’ (i.e., she was very eloquent). She stayed in Shiraz to study Saykhism. She was an adulteress and prostitute. Her husband divorced her and her children kept themselves away from her. She married the chief of the Babiyah in a place known as “Badasht” inIran. She announced that the shariat (laws) of Hazrat Mohammed (pbuh) has been abrogated and that it was completed in the year 1852/ 1268 AH.

Bahaiyat: Before Mirza Ali Mohammed Shirazi was killed, he made his successor Mirza Yahya Ali (Known as Subhe Azal) but there was the conflict between him and his brother Mirza Husain Ali. Later on Mirza Yahya Ali went to island known as “Qabras” and died there in 1912 and Husain Ali went to Akka (Palestine) and was killed by one of the follower of his brother in the year 1892 and was buried there.

Belief of Bahaiyat and their Thought

  1. They believe in the incarnation of Allah in some of His creatures and that Allah has incarnated in Bab and Bahaullah.
  2. They believe that reward and punishment is for soul (Ruh) only.
  3. They believe that all the religions are true and that Torah and Injeel are away from changes (tahreef). They believe that the necessity of Tauheed of all the religions is found only in one religion only and that is Baha’iyat.
  4. They believe that the book “Aqdas” is written by Baha Husain and that it abrogates all the heavenly books mentioned in the Holy Quran (eg Injeel, Torah).
  5. They believe that the Buddha, Brahman were prophets and that they were from the intellectuals of Hind,China and Russia.
  6. They believe like Jews and Christians that the Hazrat Isa (as) was crucified.
  7. They deny the miracles of prophets and the reality of angels and jinn and they deny heaven and hell.
  8. They prohibit veil for woman and believe in mutah (temporary marriage).
  9. They believe that the religion of Bab abrogate the shariat of Mohammed (pbuh).
  10. They believe that the Qayamat has come with the reappearance of Baha. And that their Qibla is Akka at Palestine (where the grave of Baha exists).
  11. They have prayers three times a day in morning, at noon and evening. Each prayer consists of three units (rakat). They consider that ablution (wuzu) should be done with saffron water only and if one does not find the water then he should say five times “Allaho Athar” instead.
  12. It is not permissible to pray namaz in congregation except that of Mayyit and in this way they divide the Muslim community into different sects by prohibiting congregation prayers.
  13. They consider the number “19” to be holy. Therefore they have kept the number of months as 19 in a year and each month consist of 19 days.
  14. They observe fasts in one month only and that is their most holy month and the last month and it start from 2nd March and end on 21st March. It is wajib for them in this month to keep away from eating from the morning till evening and it is followed by Eid-e-Nawroz.
  15. They prohibit Jihad and keeping weapons against unbelievers (ie enemies).
  16. They reject that Hazrat Mohammed (pbuh) is the last prophet.
  17. They reject that Haj should be done atMecca. According to them Haj should be done to where Baha was buried ie in Akka (inPalestine).
  18. They neither consider “Ghusl” after Janabat nor purification after “Najasat” as obligatory. According to them one who marries a Bahai becomes pure.
  19. According to them 19% of the wealth should be given as a zakat one time which is a kind of tax.

 Attachment of Babiyat and Bahaiyat with the Jews and Christians:

  1. One of the spies of Russia instigated Ali Mohammed Shirazi to claim that he was Bab.
  2. Baha was involved in the attempt to assassinate “Nasiruddin Shah” inIran but the attempt failed and Baha went toRussia where he received complete support. He did not surrender to Sultan of Iran until he did not take promise from him to forgive his death sentence.
  3. Baha went to Akka in the year 1285AH/1868 where he received respect from Jews. This became the history for Bahais and it became their holy place.
  4. Some Christians stand behind all these conspiracy.
  5. Bahai prohibit Jihad against enemies and consider it compulsory upon Muslims to surrender in front of the colonialism or imperialism.

Their Publication And Influential Places:

Most of the prominent Bahais are found inIran; some of them are found inIraq,Syria, Lebonan andPalestineand they are found inEgypt (Misr). They are found in Ethiopia, Avgaanda, Zambia and South Africa and Pakistan, and are found in some of the western cities like London,Vienna,France and Sudan and are found in Chicago where they have a big place for worship.

Fatwa of Ulema against Bahais:

Babiyat and Bahaiyat are the sects which are deviated and emerged from from Islam. And most of the fatwa of the muslim scholars have been issued which consider them Kafir (apostates) and described that they have emerged from Islam and it is wajib to be aware of them.

  1. Shaikh Salim Bashari Sheikhul Azhar has said in the year 1910 that Bahais are Kafir. Similarly fatwas were released on 30/6/1946 from Misr (Egypt) for divorcing and separating of the woman from her husband who has embraced Bahaiyat since by accepting the Bahai sect he has rejected Islam.
  1. Another fatwa is from “Daarul Iftenae Misri”  in the year 1968 which states that : “one who accept the religion of Bahai will be away (deviated) from Islam and order to reject such person since he has rejected the Islam.
  1. Fatwa of Shaikh Ibrahim Fyumi Amin: “Surely Bahai sect emerged from Islam and it very dangerous. They shake the political and religious issues of Islam .They consider most of the Ayat of Holy Quran as ‘batil’. According to them, Muslims have done changes in the Holy Quran. Similarly they consider the Haj as Baatil and seek for the destruction of Holy Kaaba.
  1. Similarly Sheikh Azhar who was before Shaikh Jaadul Haq gave the fatwa regarding the “kufr” of Bahai and rejected them from Islam. Most of the Islamic discussions bring out the conclusion that: “Babiyat and Bahaiyat are the mixed thought of philosophers and different religions. There is neither any provisions in it for the Muslim community to improve their affairs nor for their reunion. But rather it became clear that they worked for Zionist. Their thought spoils the Muslim community.

Fatwa of Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Baaz regarding the “kufr” of this party (Bahai) and their emerging from the Islam and it also states that “It is not Jaez (permissible) that they (Bahai) are buried in Muslim graveyard.”

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Grand Ayatollah Boroujerdi and Grand Ayatollah Khomeini

Although Ayatollah Boroujerdi rarely asked anything from Mohammad Reza Shah, but he asked him to be serious against Bahaism.

Imam Khomeini too, as a religious leader with a political position did not see the Bahaists merely as an astray sect in that circumstances but considered it as an organization which despite claiming to be non-political, was very political and therefore sought power to materialize their objectives, while from the very beginning the sect had been a tool of colonialist political powers toward undermining the beliefs and disrupting the national identity. The ties between the US policies and Zionism and the ties of the Bahaists with these two as well as their objectives for domination over Iran and the mechanisms they had chosen clarify the secret and advantage of Imam Khomeini’s sensitivity toward the Bahaism and the importance and difference of his positions. Therefore, in the opinion of Imam Khomeini, as a person which in addition to being a religious leader had hoisted the flag of fighting colonialism and defending the independence of the country, Bahaism was a tool in the hand of the modern colonialism, weapon of the enemies of the country and a threat to the independence of Iran.

The course of events and objective realities of the history of Iran from 1961 onward confirms the correctness of the knowledge and discernment of Imam. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution Imam Khomeini reiterated that Bahais are the elements of foreigners and in view of the US supports for this sect, described them as spies, stating that “This ….. is not a religion, this is a party. A party which was formerly supported by Britain and now America is supporting it. They are spies too.”

Grand Mufti of India – Janab Abdullah Bukhari

Scanned copy of the Fatwa (Urdu)

Scanned copy of the Fatwa (Urdu)

A question was posed to the grand mufti of the Jame Masjid in Delhi, Janab Abdullah Bukhari Sahab about the concept of the advent of another prophet after the Holy Prophet of Islam (pbuh). The question expressly asked his view on the Bahai Faith and the permissibility of marrying a Bahai.

In his reply, the Grand Mufti said, “The person who accepts the coming of another prophet after the Holy Prophet of Islam (pbuh) is a Kafir. The Holy Prophet of Islam is the last prophet and messenger. This is proved from the Holy Quran and from traditions of the Holy Prophet (pbuh). The one who believes other than this is Kafir.

The Bahai Faith is also considered as Kafir by scholars. Thus marrying a man or woman from the Bahai Faith is not correct from the Ahle Sunnat Wal Jamat.

This reply is correct.

Signed

Abdullah Bukhari
3rd Rabius Thaani 1407 AH”

Al Azhar speak out against Bahais and The Bahai Faith

The following is the statement of Al Azhar which appeared in Al Ahram newspaper in Egypt:

Fatwa of Al Azhar - Al Ahram (Egypt)

Fatwa of Al Azhar - Al Ahram (Egypt)

Bahaism is an invalid and deceptive sect and one who adheres to it is an unbeliever and an apostate.
It is appropriate that a decree be passed with all its resoluteness against any deviator from the religion.

A lot of Islamic research has taken place in Al-Azhar Sharif concerning Bahaism and Bahais. In this statement issued in the name of the Chief of Azhar, the Great Imam, Jaadul Haq Ali Jaadul Haq, he stated that Babism and Bahaism started an innovation in Islam. They were promoted by the people who had gone out of Islam rather they were against all heavenly religions. The person responsible for this (evil) was Mirza Ali Mohammad Shirazi who gave himself the title of Bab (gate) that is to say that he was the unbroken link to the divine truths.

From then onwards, this false sect came to the name as Babism. Then from the successors of the innovator (of Babism, Mirza Ali Mohammad Shirazi) was a man named Husain Ali Noori, who gave himself the title of Bahaullah and called the new sect as Bahaism. After him, the leader of Bahaism and its most famous element was Abbas Effendi who died in the year 1923 and then was Shoghi Effendi Rabbani who expired in 1957.

The end of the first innovator (Mirza Ali Mohammad Shirazi) was execution in 1850 at the hands of the Iranian government of that time. This was in response to the verdicts of the jurists of that time who had pronounced verdicts stating Mirza Ali Mohammad Shirazi to be a heretic and out of the bounds of Islam. Likewise, the Iranian government exiled his successor Mirza Husain Noori to Turkey from where he migrated to Palestine. It was in Palestine where he expired in 1892 and is buried in Haifa.

Babism and Bahaism are the schools of thought that have been blended many philosophies and religions. They do not possess anything that the Islamic nation may need for its rectification and bringing about a unity in it. Rather, they have been acting as agents for and in the service of the Zionists and other imperial forces. Thus it the offspring of that thought and sect that has caused tribulations in the Islamic nation and waged a war against it in the name of religion.

Al-Azhar establishes that :
“Surely Islam has not allowed respect for any other religion other than what Quran has ordered us. Rather it has prevented that there be in a city the practice of any religion other than Islam and then Christianity and Judaism. The reason being that all the other religions are not legitimate and against the public order.

Surely Al-Azhar calls out to those who are responsible for the state of affairs in the Arab Republic of Egypt that they should be resolute in their stand against this deviated group which has rebelled against the religion of Allah and against the public order of this society. They should execute the verdict of Allah against them and promulgate laws to crush them and to defile and defame them and their thoughts. This should be done so as to support and protect all their fellow citizens lest they become apostate by this heretic sect and move away from the straight path of Allah.

Surely it is necessary for all of these people who have harmed the interests of Islam and the country that they should not be seen alive and if this should not happen then they should make sure that they never utter anything against Islam

This matter surely calls for a rapid and active response from the religious authorities and jurists and those responsible with the enforcements and executions of these matters. Let us always remember that Allah has Allah has granted to those in authority (the power of enforcement) what it has not granted to Quran too.

This mischief in Islam should be dealt with concern and attention as it is among the major crimes and sins against Islam. Then let us all rush out to defend the rights of Allah which have been defiled and violated. Let us also rush out to defend Islam, the religion of Allah, regarding which people have been put to trial by the false and vain talks (of these deviated sects). We may consider these actions to be small and insignificant but surely they have a great position near Allah.

O Allah! You bear witness that Al-Azhar has conveyed.”

Hujjatul Islam Abdul Kareem Qausari (Iraq) – View on The Bahai Faith

The respected Hujjatul Islam, Abdul Kareen Qausari, who hails from Najaf, Iraq has the following view on The Bahai Faith. The Persian text of this fatwa is sourced from: http://chashmandaz-javan.blogfa.com/post-40.aspx

Views of Islamic Scholars on the Bahai Faith

Dr. Sheikh Abdolmon’en al-Nahr, a renowned Muslim personality comments on the apostasy and excommunication of the Bahais as follows:

“…We know that the Bahais were formerly Muslims but they later abandoned Islam and founded a new creed in order to harm the religion. Therefore, from the very beginning of the advent of this pseudo-religion, religious rulings have been issued against them, either they were Muslims and were converted to Bahaism, or were born of Bahai parents. There is a unanimity of views among Muftis in this conneciton…”


Sheikh Abu Zohrh in the book Tarikh al-Madhaheb al-Islamiya (History of Islamic Sects) described Bahaism as: “A crude mixture which is far from Islamic ideologies…” The Egyptian Mufti in 1971 stated: “If a person is converted from Islam to Bahaism, he is considered an apostate and rulings about apostasy should be enforced against him. His marriage is null and avoid irrespective of whether his wife is a Bahai or not…


The great Islamic writer Sattar Mohyedin Al-Khatib, on page 8 of the book Darasat Anal Babiya va Bahaiya (Studies About Babis and Bahais) has written: “Some are of the idea that hands of foreign countries, either Britain or Russia, could be seen behind this religion (Bahaism) and that those are the same hands which have invented Bahaism and Babism. But, in my opinion, this is an exaggerated comment since foreigners are not capable of creating such religious trends. However, they would not hesitate to misuse such sects after their emergence to their own advantage.”


Also, on page 41 of the above-mentioned book, Ali Al-Mansour, the consultant of the chairman of the Administrative Court of the Council of Ministers of Egypt, has been quoted as saying: “Bahaism is one of the invented sects which has been excommunicated from Islam and its followers are apostate and there apostasy.”


The Committee of religious rulings of Al-Azhar University has also ruled that, “Bahai faith is unvalid and has no connection with Islam. Any Muslim who converts to Bahaism is an apostate and infidel.”


Another Al-Azhar University professor has said, “Bahaism is a political pro-Zionism grouplet.”


Sheikh Jad-al Haq Ali Jad-al Haq, another Al-Azhar professor, in a statement released in connection with the arrest of two Egyptian groups, one led by a doctor who claimed io have prophetic mission, and the other by a Bahai artist, announced that Muslims should boycott those who have turned away from religion and should not transact with them. “Any help to them or marriage with them is prohibited according to Islam”, he added. The statement stipulated that if the two mentioned groups do not repent, they are considered apostates. It further added that Bahaism is a void religion which not only is rejected by Islam but has no connection to Christianity or Judaism. “Rather”, the statement continued, “it is a group subservient to international Zionism and is commissioned to implement its vicious schemes in Arab and Islamic countries, the most obvious proof to which is recognition of Haifa as the Qiblah of the Bahais“. The sheikh called on the two groups to repent and return to Islam. In his comments printed in the weekly Al-Lawa al-Islamic in 1985, he said: “Bahaism is a false religion which is rejected by Islam.”


The following is the text of the fourth resolution of the Jurisprudence Assembly of Egypt on Bahaism which is needless of any interpretation.

Praise be upon God, the One and Only, and blessings on his Prophet, the one that has not been followed by other prophets. The Council of the Jurisprudence Assembly has made a survey of Bahaism which emerged in Iran in the second half of the past century and which is presently being followed by a group of people who are dispersed in Muslim and non-Muslim countries.

The council has also reviewed the research work which has been conducted by a large number of scientists and writers and those who are fully aware of the real nature of this sect and its emergence, as well as of the biography of its founder Mirza Hussein Ali, born on 12 November 1817 and those of his successors, his son Abbas Afandi, known as Abdol Baha, and finally of their activities. After a lengthy discussion, the council came to the following conclusions:

. Bahaism is a newly invented faith which is based upon another new sect invented by a person called Bab (Ali Mohammed), born in Shiraz in October 1819. This person in the beginning had tendencies towards Sufism but later invented his sect upon instigations of his misled leader Kazem Rashti, who believed that he had the characteristics of angels. In the beginning, Ali Mohammad would repeat the same claims as his leader did, but, after a while separated from him and claimed that he was the same as Imam Ali Ibn Abi Taleb about whom the Prophet has stated that: “I am the city of execution is a must.”……..


Seyyed Jamaleddin Afghani (Assadabadi), has also expressed his views on page 155 of the weekly Monar al-lsiam as follows: “Bahaism is one of the dangerous religions and has an anti-Islamic philosophy. It is a sect in which the Jews play a big role. In 1842, the Babis announced their separation from Islam and started their fight with Islam and Arabic language.”


Meanwhile, the same publication on page 343 of its 7th volume has quoted Seyyed Rashid Reza, the great Islamic thinker and editor-in-chief of the said weekly as saying: “Bahaism is based on Babism whose foundations are laid on corruption. Therefore, how do you expect Muslims to accept Bahaism and Babism which, like Christianity, attribute divine characteristics to human beings?”


Mr. Abdol Aziz Nashi, a teacher and himself a student of Seyyed Rashid Reza, delivered a speech at the Islamic Guidance Society of Cairo which appeared on page 24 of the book Azva va Haqayeq Anal Babiya val Bahaiya (facts about Babis and Bahais): “…In my opinion, it is a duty shouldered by the scientists, orators and thinkers, as well as all those who are influential among the people, men and women and all those who could read and write, to advise Muslims and warn them against being deceived by Bahaism and against attending their circles or reading their books…Bahais are the most dangerous axes created to uproot Islam.”


Dr. Mohammad Nassir on page 59 of Azva va Haqayeq Anal Babiya val Bahaiya (facts about Babis and Bahais) has commented about the interest of imperialism and Zionism to support this sect and written: “Bahais say that the proof to the emergence of Baha is the influence of his words and expansion of his invitation in the absence of any human liaison but rather through the Divine Will. Such a reasoning is in fact a proof to the selfishness of the Bahais and is quite untrue. The Bahais have been attacked everywhere except for those places where imperialism and Zionism according to their advantages have supported them.”

As a proof to his statement, he has mentioned an instance in the next two pages of the book, saying: “…Abdol Baha continued his services for imperialism as he was serving the interests of Zionism in the same manner. Abdol Baha helped the British and the Indians to dominate over Palestine in the course of the World War I and after the war ended to the advantage of Britain, the British government in a splendid ceremony held on April 27, 1920 at a military headquarter in Haifa, presented him with the decoration, the Imperial House of Britain. Meanwhile, Zionism sensitively responded towards news concerning Bahaism. For instance, at the time of the formation of the Bahai circle, the report was repeatedly broadcast by Israeli radio stations, together with congratulations and felicitations on the occasion of their new year. In return, representatives of international Bahaism appreciated the kind attitude of the Israeli government towards the Bahais…There are other instances proving an amicable tie between Zionism and Bahaism.”


Professor Bent al-Shati, on the relation between Bahaism and Zionism says: “Zionism has been unmasked and has mobilized all its forces at the service of Abdol Baha. He has wasted properties of the Jews in order to render financial assistance to a faith which has emerged according to the interests of Israel. It has also mobilized a group of followers of the faith in the Islamic East, where Abbas Afandi had faced the severest Muslim resistance, in order to propagate in favour of the sect and expand the dimension of its domination.

It was at the time of Baha when Zionism was unmasked and revealed its vicious scheme ‘from the Nile to the Euphrates’ and commissioned Bahaism as one of its collaborators to pave the way for the entry of Judaism into the ‘Promised Land’. Abdol Baha then wrote a treatise called Surat-ol Muluk in which he criticized the Turkish monarch under the pretext of making a distinction between the rights of Muslims and those of the Jews. The headquarters of Bahaism on ‘Al-Karmal’ mountain has become a den for the ring leaders of international Zionism and their mercenaries among whom some had been assigned to major posts in Israeli institutions since the birth of the Israeli regime.


An article printed in Al-Akhbar Al-Amriya weekly, the official publication of the international circle of Bahaism in 1951, throws more light on the subject: ‘The assistants of Amrollah, introduced members of the Bahai community at the international Bahai center to the Israeli president and his wife. His Excellency the president has talked about his excursion in the gardens of Jabal Karmal and his visit with the beloved Amrollah in the years 1909-1911 and also his meetings with Baha.”( Al-Ahram newspaper, dated1973/9/14))


Mr. Taha al-Mowla, a Muslim historian, holds some viewpoints in this connection which has been printed in the 63rd volume of the weekly Al-Alam: “Muslim ulema have cursed Bahaism but the Jews have promulgated the faith. Bahaism has attacked Islam and claims that the era of Islam has come to an end and therefore is trying to sow the seeds of its fabricated religion which is a combination of Judaism, Christianity, Islam and idolatry.”


Mr. Khaled Mohammad Khaled, a Muslim thinker, expressed his ideas on Bahaism and its fabricated ideologies as: “My study about Bahaism revealed an ugly profile of the faith. The late Imam Sheikh Mohammad AI-Khezr Hussein had made a survey over the sect and had obtained deep knowledge about it. In one instance he has said; ‘This sect is excommunicated from Islam and its followers who claim to be commissioned for prophetic missions and even go far beyond that, and who deny miracles under the pretext of being irrational…and do not believe in the Resurrection Day, Heaven and Hell, who disregard Hajj and even intend to destroy Ka’aba, are apostate.-.Bahaism is an invention of a ‘mind’ which had various political inclinations and, therefore, the faith is considered as a deceitful religion.”


The prominent Iraqi religious personality Sheikh Mohammad Hussein Al-Kashef Al-Gheta in an interview with the weekly Felestine al-Thowra has stated: “…Many years ago we received a pamphlet in Persian which said that a person has come from the Czarist Russia to Tehran who later learnt Persian and converted to Islam. He would instigate people to rise and would teach military techniques to the Babis to make them ready to attack the Iranian army. This man (Dolgroki whose memoir has been recently translated from Farsi and who is himself a translator at the Russian embassy) was later promoted to the rank of minister extraordinary and finally to the post of the ambassador.”


And, in order to have a happy conclusion to all the above-mentioned quotations, Imam Khomeini’s views on Bahaism, printed in the Arabic Kayhan in 1982, are quoted as follows: “Even if we do not have any witness which could serve as a proof to the fact that Bahais are U.S. mercenaries and spies, Reagan’s support for them is the best proof to this claim.”

Kamaluddin Ja’eet (The Mufti of the Republic of Tunisia)

The actual fatwa of the Shaikh

The actual fatwa of the Shaikh

Islam is a religion that abrogates all previous religions, and it is the seal of religions as God says: “Whoso desired any other religion than Islam, that religion shall never be accepted from him, and in the next world he shall be among the lost”
(Ref: Chapter of Ale Imran, verse 85)

Baha’i as a creed [or a sect] is out of Islam and has nothing to do with Islam, rather it is contradicting and destroying whatever Islam has brought.

Knowing this, the International Islamic Fiqh Academy [Islamic Theology Council] of the Organization of Islamic Conference (Tunis is a member in the Academy and the organization), at its fourth meeting in Jeddah on 11th February 1988, decided that Baha’i is a disbelief in Islam and is aiming at undermining its doctrine, laws, and a way of life (the academy magazine, Issue no. 4, Volume 3, p.2189).

In the above context it is known that if one of the spouses is infidel or apostate, it obligates the separation. God said:” if ye ascertain that they are Believers, then send them not back to the Unbelievers. They are not lawful (wives) for the Unbelievers, nor are the (Unbelievers) lawful (husbands) for them.”
(Ref: Chapter of Al-Mumtahina verse 10).

Inheritance between them is prohibited as well. Prophet Muhammad said: “No Inheritance between people of two different religious communities” (Narrated by Ahmed, Hakem, and Al-Nesaee). The majority of Muslim scholars concluded that what is meant by the two religious communities is Islam and Kufr.

Adding to this, there is disharmony between the spouses of contradicting beliefs, and this is proofed in this case shown to me. In her letter the wife reasserted what she is subjected to in terms of taunting, of continued coercion to embrace the husband’s creed (Baha’i), and of coercion attempts for her to follow the special rituals of this creed [sect] (like fasting for example; for the Baha’is it starts on march 2nd and ends on March 21st every year- which is the Persian feast of Nawrouz).

Tunis, 04 March 2008